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What Are Chemical Process Calculations?

Chemical Process Calculations

Chemical process calculation is an intricate concept of Chemical Engineering and is also known as Stoichiometry. It covers the analysis of unit operations and covers reacting and non-reacting systems. It solves mass balance calculations, yield analysis, thermochemistry, and variation of specific heat capacities.

It is the process calculation of different systems and products mainly related to the process industry.

Significance of chemical process calculations

These calculations have a wide range of importance in material and energy balance in different chemical processes and unit operations.

The various heats related to chemical reactions are determined using the chemical process calculation formula—fuels and combustion calculations aid in understanding proximate and ultimate analysis.

Heat neutralization, adiabatic reaction temperature, the heat of solutions, and partial pressure concepts are solved using chemical calculations.

In-depth Chemical process calculations

Isothermal process

These are processes carried out at a constant temperature. The change in temperature and internal energy is constant, provided there is no change of phase. The fusion of ice is an isothermal process.

Calculation of the isothermal process quantifies the expansion that occurs with the absorption of heat. It also solves the compression that occurs with the evolution of heat.

Adiabatic process

In this process, the system undergoing the change does not exchange heat with the surrounding environment—temperature changes during this process, for example, expansion of gas in a vacuum.

Calculation of this process determines the total heat content and internal energy of the system. This process is not reversible.

Isobaric process

This is a process that is carried out under constant pressure. Expansion and/or contraction of volume neutralizes any pressure change.

Calculation of this process determines the net amount of work done by the system. For example, boiling water to steam or freezing water to ice.

Isochoric process

Processes that are carried out at a constant volume are known as isochoric processes. For instance, a gaseous reaction is carried out in a tightly closed container.

Isochoric process calculations determine the total heat supplied or rejected as well as the increase or decrease in internal energy of the system.

Cyclic process

This is a sequence of processes that leave the system in the same state in which it started. In this process, the initial and final state is the same.

Cyclic process calculations are performed to determine the heat absorbed by the system and the network done by the system.

Reversible process

This is a process in which the system and surroundings can be returned to the original conditions from the final state without producing any thermodynamic changes. An example of this process is the extension of springs.

Reversible process calculation quantifies applied hydraulic pressure and osmotic pressure difference in the system.

Irreversible process

A process in which the system does not return to its original condition once the process is initiated. Throttling, relative motion with friction, and heat transfer are examples of irreversible processes.

Irreversible process calculations determine the amount of fuel energy that is converted into heat energy.


Chemical process calculation is very important to chemical engineering process design, optimizing the process flow, and improving the process operation.

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