The quality of point to point microwave communications are influenced by the following measurements:
1. The Availability Of A Link
This boundary is articulated in percentage and regulates what percentage of time the link is created during a specific period, generally in a twelve-month period. A consistent microwave link must have a link obtainability of 99.999 percent. Since microwave links can be influenced by the time of day and also many other geographical characteristics, it is essential for crucial links to have a continuous test of at least forty-eight hours.
2. BER (Bit error rate)
This numeral reflects the percentage of data bits with errors versus the overall number of bits that are transmitted over a specific time. The value is typically communicated as ten to a negative power. The lesser the number, the high quality of the link. Exceptional BER rates are generally in a range of 10 -8 or higher.
3. Bandwidth Output
This is the genuine value of data that can be communicated per second and is conveyed by bits per second, for instance, a bandwidth output of 100 Mbps relates to 100 megabits of data that can be sent by the link per second. The larger the numeral, the higher the quality of the link.
4. SNR (Signal to noise ratio)
The ratio is calculated by dB and reveals the strength of the signal versus the noise level for the relevant frequency channel. The more significant the amount, the better. The dB must be at least 20dB.
When it comes to point to point microwave communication, link latency concludes how much time it will take for data to be transferred. For an exceptional microwave link, the latency must be secure and not exceed 2-3ms. The best way of checking latency is by pinging the destination device.
5 Essential Influences For A Steady Microwave Link
Microwave links generally vary from 2.4GHz to 42GHz range. The more significant the frequency, the better the available capacity, however, the efficient band is lessened, and the link will be more vulnerable to high humidity or rain. A license must be obtained from local authorities to utilize a frequency. There are license-free frequency ranges available also, primarily 2.4GHz, 5GHz as well as 24GHz.
The required bandwidth output of point to point microwave links is an essential design boundary. You may need to install stronger antennas and equipment as your capacity increases for a higher SNR.
Line Of Sight And Path Loss Calculation
The antenna for point to point microwave links on both sides must be aligned in sight of each other. Nowadays there are computer apps that can predict the line of sight as well as path loss accurately, but a visual survey from an experienced engineer is also necessitated.
Fading and interference
Interference and fading are other problems that must be addressed since it can influence the link reliability significantly.
The stableness of a link can be significantly increased by adding redundancy. Dual redundant radios can be installed to the same antenna for frequencies of 7GHz and higher. This is not possible however in lower frequencies; therefore, two independent radio links must be installed with adequate frequency as well as space diversity.